Tuesday, May 10, 2016


The face is signification, and signification without context...meaning all by itself. You are you. In this sense one can say that the face is not "seen." It is what CANNOT BECOME A CONTENT, WHICH YOUR THOUGHT WOULD EMBRACE; it is uncontainable, it leads you beyond.

It is in this that the signification of the face makes it escape from being, as a correlate of a knowing. Vision, to the contrary, is a search for adequation; it is what par excellence absorbs being. Levinias in

Ethics and Infinity: Conversations with Phillippe Nemo.
But the relation to the face is STRAIGHTAWAY ETHICAL. The face is what one cannot kill, or at least it is that whose meaning consists in saying: "though shalt not kill."

Murder, it is true, is a banal fact: one can kill the Other; the ethical exigency is not an ontological necessity. The prohibition against killing does not render murder impossible, even if the authority of the prohibition is maintained in the bad conscience about the accomplished evil - the malignancy of evil. It also appears in the Scriptures, to which the humanity of man is exposed inasmuch as it is engaged in the world. But to speak truly, the appearance of being of these ethical peculiarities - the humanity of man - is a rupture of being. It is significant, even if being resumes and recovers itself. 

A nephew says some of these are monstrous. They however are not meant to express the artist's intent or person. They reflect the world. The world does not like to look at itself as is hence we can color this image with verbal association. Does anybody like calling it Hillary? Or how about Hillary at the Philadelphia Dolphin Convention coming up in July. Or it you like something sooner, how about Brexit EU? I hate it when art reflects the world and we have to thing about it.

After all this I must accept them after i have forgiven them for what they are, because there were previous stages in the making, as the past in an individual life, the amorphous forethought, the making of the clay, its lamination, the molding into form on the wheel, the separate parts waiting assembly, the stretching of the clay, the assembly and its bracing, the bending, molding breaking, the covering and hoping it won't fall, the finishing of the head, adjustments, the signing, the flattening the base so it will stand: all this precedes the bisquing and glazing when whites blend and intensities fade. Then the final firing and it cannot look like what it did before. That I may accept them after I have forgiven them for what they are.

 -This represents the last in a summer series (so far) of what must only be called EMOTICONS in order to confront the mindlessness of those tongue tied idiots who use them, configured as they are to Disnify everything about their relationships. And if these images don't seem recognizable to you that's because they are the real misshapen, twisted faces that the elites have produced for consumption the commoner terrorist media. This one could be called Khizar Khan. Most of these Emoticons are two faced, even three faced, in order to show the duplicity and hypocrisy of their users. It won't be glazed for some weeks though. Its back story, illustrative of the make or break, demo and rebuild philosophy controlling our time. Ceramic puppets.

 Their unvarying intensity of facial expression, impossible for living actors, keeps the imagination of the spectators continuously stimulated. When one of them is speaking or tumbling and the rest left aside, these, though in full view, are invisible, as they should be. Living actors have to learn that they too must be invisible while the protagonists are conversing, and therefore must not move a muscle nor change their expression, instead of, as beginners mostly do, playing to them and robbing them of the audience's undivided attention.

Puppets have also a fascination of their own, because there is nothing wonderful in a living actor moving and speaking, but that wooden headed dolls should do so is a marvel that never palls.
And they can survive treatment that would kill live actors. When I first saw them in my boyhood nothing delighted me more than when all the puppets went up in a balloon and presently dropped from the skies with an appalling crash on the floor. GB Shaw. Complete Plays: With Prefaces - Vol. 5

Tuesday, July 7, 2015


 A Planet is a Pot. Crumpled, Dented and Crushed, the ceramic here and the writing there is a primitive, naive, unfinished stress and distress,  feldspar crystals from pumice clasts within a tuff, as one can say. 

"The creation of a perfect illusion depends not (only upon a vertiginous degree of) technical ability, but ultimately upon the intuitive channeling of a breathless state in which the painter himself no longer knows whether his eye still sees or his hand still moves." W. G. Sebald, A Place in the Country. On the Paintings of Jan Peter Tripp, 175.

 Stressing materials away from the smooth and the fine to the lobate scarps of planetary implosion or cliffs of displacement thrust faults, compressional stresses, thermal contraction, lineated terrains, are means of dramatizing the primitive to display the universal human, not the beauty fantasy, but the pain in the global aspects of Mercury that lead to a loss of surface secreting and planting contradiction into the clay body. Slumping, cutting earthquakes seek the volcano in the kiln. The pollution in saying so calls fire out of the medieval Cloud  with spirit. Fathom that after the volcano, like the shell of a man shrunk, heart sack creased like a pot expelled from itself when you don't have naught to say, that thought burns up. Intellect ceases tasks. You stand struck, parietal lobes rewired. That is primitive.

As in Kierkegaard's idea of the primitive in Johan Tael's Immediacy and Reflection in Kierkegaard's Thought, 57F:

The modern age is fundamentally dishonest. Modern man through his own fault is caught in a bewilderment of self deception in and about himself due to a lack of naivete, in an age that can no longer be naive, an essential condition for a healthy and honest human existence. This points to an even deeper lack, a want of the primitive. Primitive existence always contains a reexamination of the universally human. The primitive thinker reflects on what everyone knows, or should know. What these things are must be shown not told to that self consciousness that is so self assured. If it recognizes it recognizes itself. The concept of human being is normative; The ethical task of each singular human being consists in transforming the psychic qualification of his existence in a pneumatic one; The bedrock normative practice that determines the human being as "pneumatic" is the existential speech-act.

Writing is pneumatic in itself if it breathes with these primitive universal dramas. Primitive ceramic feeds upon thought and forethought when stone hits glass and the breakage conforms to gravity and glass, not the intention of the artist; if not, the result is mere thought.

These ideas, minimalist, and abstract expressionist, rise in conversation like Legends of the Unconscious, ruined artifacts with sources to do with vacancy and presence, vacancy of the design and designer, presence of the flows of the natural. Making and repeating patterns to identify work as recognizable of a certain brand betrays vacancy, made necessary by the need of PR, exhibition and style, at least after the effect. Dropping a stone on glass, making design by erosion, breakage, eruption, gravity, is vacancy. If firings are apocalypses what are "reconciliations of the good?" No results found. The pine will die in the fire! Lee Ufan, in Mono-ha, the School of Things, says unknowingly materials reveal knowledge. Against thought and forethought when stone hits glass the breakage conforms to gravity and glass, not the intention of the artist, if not, the result is mere thought. The tension of artist, glass and stone, the freedom of each to act and crack unknowingly reveals qualities inherent in, but not visible as object. Yes this is a little simple to say destruction is an aesthetic, it smacks of social disorders, crisis actors, false flags. That's why it may appeal, because the earth is being destroyed all around us by this malevolence.  Crack the stone, conceal the stone, railroad ties reveal connotations of forced labor in Japanese colonies in World War II, Ireland's famine stone walls around the Burren are famine walls denoting starvation and slavery. Starkly burning wood makes charcoal. So we might study with creosote and yarrow, mugwort and water or look in the tortoise mirror. Extremes of Biological Extinction preoccupy such beings.

Laminating Opposites. Mercury

Listening for the spirit of knowing and not knowing in a human mind, as if passage tombs were like wood kilns, pollution is then a good we can all talk about while laminating opposites of volcano and chalk hill and wood kiln, maybe infiltrating cone 5 clay into cone tens with bark and organics, rocks, volcanic ash, erosion deposition, reburying feldspar, shigaraki layering,  cracking, stressing with cedar berries, pine needles, sycamore bark, buckeye pods, chicken bones, fish streams of shino in the underclay where spines are buried, pebbles, manure, vermiculite! beetles! road kill!, chollas, spines, pads, all buried. But who dares it? Hope to hatch out a split scarab stretching geologics? Mercury-like thrust faults and global contraction of the planet, we should say, with lobate scarps from interior cooling. As Casanova's pieces, Mercury has a larger core than other inner planets creating cumulative compressional strain recorded in the lobate scarps that suggest a decrease in Mercury's radius, which the kiln can easily top, shrinking by at least 10%. So a reduction gas kiln imitates the anagama and both a planet. A planet is a pot. Core contractions produce lobate scarps [scalps], cliffs of implosion, displacement thrust faults, compressional stresses, thermal contraction, lineated terrain. Preexisting crater rims disrupt into crude polygonal hills and fractures, mantled, blanketed by impact ejecta. Miners, dwarves, nibelungs explode the iron oxide earth clay coat, rutile wash, cobalt hole. Yes art is this katalole. It reminds of the electrical scouring of Mars.

All these global aspects of Mercury lead to a loss of surface that secreting, planting of contradiction into the clay body makes. Slumping, cutting earthquakes seek the volcano in the kiln. The pollution in saying so calls fire out of the medieval Cloud of Unknowing with the spirit. Fathom that after the volcano, like the shell of a man shrunk, heart sack creased like a pot expelled from itself, when you don't have naught to say. Thought burns up. Intellect ceases tasks. You stand struck, parietal lobes rewired.This destruct is art? Apocalypse.is art. All these firings are apocalypses. Before I left for Clarksdale I read that when the sixth angel sounds it will loose the angels bound in the Euphrates.

 Fire is romanticized. Think the sculptors and the piscine shapes of women know that we go in this fire? Been touched? Once burned? Twice? Why were they in the Euphrates (not the Gihon, Tigris, or Nile)? Why had they been bound, now loosed?! You know why. The 200 million horses breathe fire, smoke and brimstone. They are kilns some critic would say, wrenching scripture as does Kafka's analogy of the Wall of China for the Tower of Babel. China to Babel, horses to kilns, all prophets, Enoch, Noah, David, Isaiah, Jonah, Jesus, John are traditional and iconoclastic. Consider making a whip to cleanse the Temple. Kafka enforces scripture with the best Biblicals. Believe that and read the Great Wall of China and the kiln opening like my nephew asking what the opening of the seventh seal means. I told him that I hate to spoil the ending. I subscribe parageography to geology with the voyages of Odysseus, Virgil, St. Brenden. As Beowulf stands beside the burning mere Of plumb immensity before he’ll go Into the vast abysm without fear, And wonders if that watery bed’s his bier Before he draws a breath of earth’s sweet air, And dives into the darkness of the mere:

Poetry? You say there's a difference between water and earth, air and fire, male and female? More pollution of  intellect?

The wood kiln  is about  blushes girls make when they come out and open their faces. The Unloading makes the color ranges known. In the catacombs Don Reitz is rumored to mix his clays from a WSO base, with a pinch of the secret (oxide). Others are trucking raw clay from the East as Reitz draws From The Heart. Implicit reduction of oxygen or oxidation forced with ash and smoke from chemicals saturated in the clay makes them blush. Iron and copper clay compositions set up blushes with the wood, depending whether pecan, walnut, pine. Some place they fire with cinnamon, persimmon, madrone. Lee Ufan (Japan), Claudi Casanovas (Spain) and Donald Judd (W Tex (Marfa!)), range to and fro over takes of this natural, cuts of stone hills and scrub growth, sun and sky.

 Mining Minimals
Truth Business:

How can the intellect pollute the natural and its art when it thinks it is mining the heart? All mining produces contamination of surface and subsurface, slag heaps, gob piles, subsidence, runoff increase. Chemicals concentrate in water that the Reitz Ranch is well situated to recall, chemicals concentrated in the Verde River run right by. Consider the Verde river polluted with mine tailings and arsenic runoff just down from here where Cottonwoods fish the river. Maybe they don't drink the water, but abandoned smelter stacks and slag piles wash down leftover mines also in Globe, Bisbee, Jerome and a hundred others. Compare these with the intellectual pollution of the natural in the human. Like it or not, seeking depth, mines are the depth of art mirroring life that cannot take the pristine uprights of Reitz' sculptural  recall, with its crosses and grave artifacts, other than as if they were the River Shannon graveyards of Clonmacnoise. The last thing I remember is Jonathan Cross saying something like, "the fire of the volcano," who insisted that deliberation of ceramic takes of the world were intellectual, after a taking of the natural. The argument was that had they the colors we have they'd certainly used them. So the sea would not remain the wine-dark of Homer. But what is art if not pollution, considering our surroundings, the hills barren, the river poisoned, the sky filled with chemtrails all the sun filled day? Intellect to intellect? I didn't say this. I am listening as if knowing is finding the spirit of knowing and not knowing simultaneously, as in a human mind.The red, black and white clay colors of ancient statuary are like the three classical colors, the only colors, inferred from Arabic.

Kiln opening.

Don't you love art talk? Don Reitz is famous for it. Claudi Casanovas, in Twenty Blocks, says "each piece is a silence. If I were a poet, I would inscribe words there." Here Casanovas too, but such impossibility! The silence is complete. Only his stressing of materials is exciting, The problem all these boys have is why should I buy their pieces when I can go to Winslow and buy petrified wood as big or bigger than I can lift, already stressed? The stressing of materials echoes Mono-ha. The impression these give on the GalerieBesson site is of a depersonalization attractive because the viewer doesn't have to figure out the message, recognize the face, interpret the image. It's a rock its own self collecting, but there were no human figures in the kiln. Donald Judd collaborated with his father, but had extreme distaste for galleries and art biz. Artist as "designer," not "maker" might not obscure that design. Whether preceding the made, made in the making, or found after, in breaking, this is a mere time constraint, for should there be time no longer, to further the Biblical, if then, then now, time is a convenience for those who talk. If no time, then no human maker either, not to deny the work, merely to say nothing, certainly not thank you for saying it is good. What's your problem anyway? He died rich. He was so rich he started a foundation in Marfa. That's where Robert Creeley got sick in order to die in Odessa.

Afterward I got out a pit fired Papago pot from the old trader Kermit Lee acquired when he liquidated. You can see the burn marks and its softness: “Eight miles from the Pisinemo Road is the Quijotoa Trading Post. Quijotoa is a Spanish corruption of KiaHoaToak, Papago for “carrying basket mountain.” The Quijotoa Mountains were mined in 1774 and again with more importance in the 1880s. At the trading post, Mr. and Mrs. Kermit Lee have a wonderful selection of Papago baskets and pottery. Baskets range from thumb-nail miniatures made of horsehair to waste basket size of yucca, beargrass, and martynia…Almost directly across from the Trading Post is a road north to Santa Rosa Village. Just west of it is Ventana Cave; and here lies some of the most ancient history in North America.” Desert Magazine,

2014 and after --"Firing in wood burning kilns gave him new surfaces to explore along with new clay bodies that he discovered while in Japan, clay from Shigaraki. Sandy clay from the bed of Lake Biwa has a warm orange color which characterizes Shigaraki ware [?] of irregular contours and archaic flavor. Firing technique shifted from reduction to oxidation firing, which allows free admission of air during the firing rather than limited air admission into the kiln. This allows iron oxides to be used as part of the coloring process. The allowance of free air is due to the type of ancient kiln, called an anagama kiln, which is used to fire Shigaraki ware...achieves the mineral glaze surface. Depending on the placement of the piece, the resulting coat of ash and minerals will vary with a greyish to a reddish-brown colorizing, small impurities protrude, caused by embedded quartz [feldspar?] partially fired. Covered with a thin layer of overrun yellowish-brown to a peach blossom red color glaze that crackles when fired is also characteristic."

Voulkos "Invented each time as if for the first time then reinvented as part of the history of invention."...geology of art, archeology, layer by layer...primeval geology, gap, crack, smash, sludge, break...beauty of the crack, the burned crack, the torn edge, plasticity, viscosity, drying, slashed, embedded, incised, scratched, scored, incised wax resist stacks, plates, STACKS! contours, recesses, fit for caves, spelunkers, "destroy itself at the same time it creates," ...original wary attitude toward applied glaze solidified to total avoidance...cylinder, dome, sphere, disk, plate, slab. Leather hard wheel forms joined in various combinations in stacks or ice buckets (?) muscular, irreverent, anti-academic [primitef] (From the introduction of Clay's Tectonic Shift: John Mason ceramic walls].  Mason began to make massive rough-hewn walls... huge cross forms and solid, geometric shape...imprinting the finished form with the gestural force of its making-ceramic walls]. Walls, vertical totems, crosses, reaching for the primitive.

We are going to have to forgive Voulkos for being an influence on so many ceramic artists. That's their fault. Also forgive the force of his personality, here's a good pic. The solitude, rejection, anger, energy, dislocation: “The minute you begin to understand what you’re doing it loses that searching quality.  Your emotions take over and what happens just happens. Usually you don’t know it’s happened until after it’s done.http://franklloydgallery.wordpress.com/2009/07/09/peter-voulkos-on-improvisation/Of the influence of Franz Kline

Of the influence of Franz Kline: "Bridges, tunnels, buildings, engines, railroads, and other architectural and industrial icons are imagery informing Kline's work; lines, planes, facets, coal, "Kline’s memories of his native Pennsylvania’s coal-mining region, with its stark scenery, locomotives and similar massive mechanical shapes to which the titles of his later abstract images sometimes referred." Reading that Franz Kline's black and white paintings with tunnels and roads stems from his childhood in Wilkes Barre and the coal mines makes me wonder at the influence of that house along the railroad where we lived from 5-16. Especially the early years, starting 1947 the trains smoke was not scrubbed. What was later white was black as soot, especially where the freights had to go up a gentle rise we live in the middle of. There were two tracks, only freight trains, that went to and way from the Pennsylvania Railroad train yard a few miles down. This was a big operation hillsides undermined by coal extraction prevented development.When I look at these rectilineal constructs, crosses etc I see grave stone ceremonials. Much of Voulkos, Callas, Reitz is suited to memorials. De Kooning also enters these associations, who I have long loved, block and slices. I love everything he says about art non art.


Malcolm Davis

Their glazes were basically feldspar with a little ash.

The secret of carbon-trapping is in one ingredient: soda ash. My particular glaze has
about 18% soda ash. Many shinos have no soda ash at all and are glazes used by potters
who do not want carbon-trapping and are searching for a more traditional Japanese sur-
face. I love those pots, but I am obsessed with carbon and soot.
reduction pulls the oxy out of the glaze that was grown in, sulfide to sufate
Note on celadon: a little tin oxide and/or barium carbonate will help with the blue color.

John Mason
The common reduction fired Shino glazes in North America are mostly gloss or semigloss, fat, white crackle glazes with some orange to red and dark red from iron in the clay body or iron slips under the glaze. Shinos were born in Japan as almost pure high fired feldspar glazes. Shino on porcelain requires underglaze iron bearing slips, or in-glaze iron (i.e. from an iron-containing kaolin). Shinos are fluxed with soda spars and nepheline syenite and do not contain calcium because it dissolves the iron and inhibits the red color. Shinos usually do not have added silica, the silica being contributed by the feldspars and the clays in the glaze. Some Shinos contain Spodumene, which may be added to balance the high expansion soda spars. A simple Shino recipe is 70% Nepheline Syenite and 30% Kaolin. Shino

Iron Glazes

After: I have done less of this in clay than I did in glass and words. The world is before us, but the pot remains after. Ask what he will do tomorrow if he had success today-what are you working on, as they do all novelists. The answer is there is no time and what is done is done before, during and after.

Tuesday, May 19, 2015

Tree of Knowledge

Grotesque of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. Myriad cracks of the stretched clay produced dark where the glaze broke, not veins of leaves. The entwined figure likewise turned dark, glaze separating into scales which looked more like the figure was strangling the tree.

Tree of Knowledge, Tree of Folly. Folly can be entertaining, look at the Ziegfeld Follies. That is the universe and the uncon together, Follies of immensity. Shiploads of folly. Awards of folly. Publications of folly. I want to try to give some account of some sculptures in the round, arrayed to tell this story. The piece called the Tree of Knowledge starts off with consciousness, of telling of a serpent entwined about a tree which is the vessel itself, fluted with variations. The subject of the tree, proven corrupt thus with all knowledge, a tree with this serpent was disgusting to me, that is until I began to seriously examine Brueghel's Fall of the Rebel Angels, which I liked for its blue sky and what I consider full moon rising. Below occur all manner of horrors, hybrids, beasts, and artificilia, every manner of distress and combat, the angels above. Somehow this justified what occurs on the Tree of knowledge, although it is a single panel in this long epic of Eden.

To admit to vacancy this was not intended, but there was the purpose to place human figures in the round as in many other examples, Rapture In Progress for one. To do so runs counter to the fineness of the Chinese and Japanese masters who achieve such heights of understatement. This appalling figure reinforced in the glazing and such as it was the pieces came together to illustrate a snake curled  around the tree. The snake camouflages itself against the bark. Its body completely encircles the tree, an ouroboros item done in heavy applications of carbon trap shino, so the snake scales are highlighted against the very dark clay of its body. Edges of the body are applied in orange shino waxed, to an orange border so the snake seems to have a flame aspect to it. The fluting of the tree occurs in a green lily pad glaze, with also breaks, but a different pattern than the shino, alternated with light celadon over porcelain. The snake as it were has two arms one rising the other falling as it circles the center of the tree, ugly and fearful, its head arched down in a viperous triangle, tongue flickering, poisoning the whole tree of education. All the stars are named for its gods as it calls itself in the classics, meaning the compendium of counterfeit accounts of the universe and the human, all the archetypes and dreams of the archetype fabrics of its making, that Jung's Red Book is itself, with all divination and wisdom the leaf of its fall. That is to say that the heavens are named for the serpent and the unconscious is named for the serpent. So it is really a tree of bondage, all knowledge is bondage. To what. Well ask. To the status quo of mortality, time, rebellion. Oh dear. The days of the week, the months of the year, the constellations of the heaven are all dedicated to it.

This style has its hazards. It wanted to shape fluting with stretched porcelain, a figure stretching around the vase from some notion that it would pick up the pot and walk off, the green contrast against orange shino representing the tree's leaves so to speak. But myriad cracks of the stretched clay produced dark where the glaze broke, not veins of leaves. The entwined figure likewise turned dark, glaze separating into scales which looked more like the figure was strangling the tree. It takes some time to be able to see what is actually there as opposed to what one thought should be there. What this says about the value of education is left to the viewer. What it says of iconography in the corrosion of the dark clay of the figure, borders of red around the "leaves," orange, = maroon cracking, speckling, spalling,  allegorize the knowledge that can cut the fins off every shark to enhance health. Evil is always explained, analyzed, rationalized with pains taken at  Scribd sites, HistoPossum, Opiomes, Building Transhuman Immortals, and etc. We seem to want epic what is banal. The white shino interior of this vase belies the ill prognosis where it has collected on the inward curves of the slopes like snow.

Monday, May 11, 2015

Bus Stop, Flower from Rock, Volcano I and II @ AZ Clay WHAM and Shemer

Flower from Rock
Two openings this week; I have Bus Stop, AZ Clay at WHAM galleries and Flower from Rock, Force of Nature at Shemer. Pat has two carbonized fire pots, balls fired molten, I and II, at WHAM, the volcano spewing its ash down the side of the mount, some lava dried in black massy streaks, other still alive, steaming.  Different characters in various states of relaxation lounge in Bus Stop. Whatever it would look like as a canvas, the slouching and curves are magnified in the round. One pic doesn't get it. What I see for the most part is that art rules each medium with its own well founded rules not set out to be broken, but to push the clay to where it would break, as here one section of the lamination arches out from the form, bowed in the firing, so daylight appears between its cracks, holes, caverns and splits, even before the firing, the piece stretched to its limit attracted this process, which is the same with words, if less obvious, as above, where streams was the word intended, but steams got written and kept. I also exhibited four pieces at the Herberger - Crumpled, Dented and Crushed, that ended 15 March. Click to big.

Monday, March 30, 2015

Water Jars

Theodore's Water Jar
Macedonian Water Jar
Water Jar Mural

Sunday, November 30, 2014


The eye tries to understand what it sees when folds and curves make shadow. It constantly plays over it to create familiarity. It is as if he eye recasts the image, which seems to be moving, to understand it. This establishes the statement, it depends on your point of view. Such composition has a range of meaning and association, from more simple but improbable Flowers from Rock to curvilinear figures not quite named, like a woman a flower or abstract deconstructions of a vessel. The eye tries to make these look like something it recognizes. "...my body does the math and physics, so I try not to think. I just wait for the picture of the finished piece to flash across my mind as I work...the final form comes from the process." Lesley-Ann Hoets. Ceramics Feb 2015.

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Crumpled, Dented, Crushed

After an upcoming Herberger exhibit, four of these appearing out of a number. Unless it is too philosophical to be of interest these stressed and broken attempts to fall and stand at the same time see pots as people and to which do we like most, the cheerful ones who go against all odds and heroically oppose, or those who bow the head, the knee, and excite sympathy? Indeed many did fall, imploded, collapsed in the stretching intended to enhance their lines. Why were they pushed to such extremes? Some can't raise their hands because they don't have arms. These are many. Or sometimes they just have stumps for arms in these days. Of those who raise hands not all get them all the way up either, from the weight or maybe they are prevented. There are all kinds of postures in hands raised, just like there are all kinds of reasons for raising them. Surrender is always implied, and praise. Also sacrifice. Those without hands are the most poignant if we imagine them. We can see the heads and the bodies, as if the arms and hands were wrapped inside a serape maybe. Hands raised, heads raised, bodies raised. If we are armed militarized security forces it gets ambiguous, as they are concealing something under their cloaks. Beating hearts. Some of these may be considered Protest Jars, others Quechua ladies silently witnessing.